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BigBang Nucleosynthesis
MasaAki Hashimoto, Riou Nakamura, E. P. Berni Ann Thushari, Kenzo Arai
 Springer
 27 Novembre 2018
 9789811329357
The book reviews theories of nucleosynthesis in bigbang cosmology. It introduces the standard model of cosmology, astronuclear reactions, numerical techniques for nucleosynethsis, and describes in detail the theories that go beyond the standard models, enabling readers to grasp the physics of bigbang nucleosynthesis on the basis of cosmology, general relativity and nuclear physics. In addition, the authors provide insights into the theoretical constrains required by observations. As a consequence, readers find out that bigbang nucleosynthesis still has windows opened to another cosmology. Although the book focuses on highly advanced topics, it is concisely written and mathematical derivations are explained stepbystep, making it accessible to graduate readers. Thus it is a short monograph appealing to a variety of readers interested in nucleosynthesis of bigbang cosmology.

Surgical Management of Cerebrovascular Disease
Yasuhiro Yonekawa, Tetsuya Tsukahara, Aki Laakso, Juha Hernesniemi
 Springer
 2 Décembre 2009
 9783211993736
In July 2008, European and Japanese specialists in neurosurgery, neurology, interventional neuroradiology and neurointensive care joined together to discuss the latest developments in the management of cerebrovascular disorders at the 4th European Japanese Joint Conference on Stroke Surgery, held in Helsinki, Finland. This collection of papers from the meeting deal with aneurysm surgery and management of subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke, arterial dissection, intracranial arteriovenous malformations and fistulas, and microneurosurgical bypass and revascularization techniques.

Applications of DataCentric Science to Social Design
AkiHiro Sato
 Springer
 4 Juillet 2019
 9789811071942
The intention behind this book is to illustrate the deep relation among human behavior, datacentric science, and social design. In fact, these three issues have been independently developing in different fields, although they are, of course, deeply interrelated to one another. Specifically, fundamental understanding of human behavior should be employed for investigating our human society and designing social systems. Insights and both quantitative and qualitative understandings of collective human behavior are quite useful when social systems are designed. Fundamental principles of human behavior, theoretical models of human behavior, and information cascades are addressed as aspects of human behavior. Datadriven investigation of human nature, social behavior, and societal systems are developed as aspects of datacentric science. As design aspects, how to design social systems from heterogeneous memberships is explained. There is also discussion of these three aspectshuman behavior, datacentric science, and social designindependently and with regard to the relationships among them.

Pairwise Multiple Comparisons
TakaAki Shiraishi, Hiroshi Sugiura, ShinIchi Matsuda
 Springer
 30 Septembre 2019
 9789811500664
This book focuses on allpairwise multiple comparisons of means in multisample models, introducing closed testing procedures based on maximum absolute values of some twosample ttest statistics and on Ftest statistics in homoscedastic multisample models. It shows that (1) the multistep procedures are more powerful than singlestep procedures and the Ryan/EinotGabriel/Welsh tests, and (2) the confidence regions induced by the multistep procedures are equivalent to simultaneous confidence intervals. Next, it describes the multistep test procedure in heteroscedastic multisample models, which is superior to the singlestep GamesHowell procedure. In the context of simple ordered restrictions of means, the authors also discuss closed testing procedures based on maximum values of twosample onesided ttest statistics and based on Bartholomew's statistics. Furthermore, the book presents distributionfree procedures and describes simulation studies performed under the null hypothesis and some alternative hypotheses. Although singlestep multiple comparison procedures are generally used, the closed testing procedures described are more powerful than the singlestep procedures. In order to execute the multiple comparison procedures, the upper 100a percentiles of the complicated distributions are required. Classical integral formulas such as Simpson's rule and the Gaussian rule have been used for the calculation of the integral transform that appears in statistical calculations. However, these formulas are not effective for the complicated distribution. As such, the authors introduce the sinc method, which is optimal in terms of accuracy and computational cost.

Applied datacentric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from dataoriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socioeconomic systems. From a datacentric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people's minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie the chapters of the book. The first is to describe mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis, and toward that end the author delineates methods with actual data in each chapter. The second is to find a cyberphysical link between data and datagenerating mechanisms, as data are always provided by some kind of datagenerating process in the real world. The third goal is to provide an impetus for the concepts and methodology set forth in this book to be applied to socioeconomic systems.

Lesson Study Research and Practice in Mathematics Education
Lynn C. Hart, Alice S. Alston, Aki Murata
 Springer
 11 Janvier 2011
 9789048199419
Lesson study is a professional development process that teachers engage in to systematically examine their practice, with the goal of becoming more effective. Originating in Japan, lesson study has gained significant momentum in the mathematics education community in recent years.
As a process for professional development, lesson study became highly visible when it was proposed as a means of supporting the common practice of promoting better teaching by disseminating documents like standards, benchmarks and nationally validated curricula.
While the body of knowledge about lesson study is growing, it remains somewhat elusive and composed of discrete research endeavors. As a new research area there is no coherent knowledge base yet. This book will contribute to the field bringing the work of researchers and practitioners together to create a resource for extant work.
This book describes several aspects of Lesson Study, amongst others: it gives an historical overview of the concept, it addresses issues related to learning and teaching mathematics, it looks at the role of the teacher in the process. The last two sections of the book look at how lesson Study can be used with preservice mathematics teachers and at university mathematics methods teaching. 
Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications
Ivan A. Parinov, ShunHsyung Chang, YunHae Kim, NaoAki Noda
 Springer
 10 Août 2021
 9783030764814
This book presents selected peerreviewed contributions from the 2020 International Conference on "Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications", PHENMA 2020 (2629 March 2021, Kitakyushu, Japan), focusing on processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications of advanced materials. The book describes a broad spectrum of promising nanostructures, crystal structures, materials, and composites with unique properties. It presents nanotechnological design approaches, environmentalfriendly processing techniques, and physicochemical as well as mechanical studies of advanced materials. The selected contributions describe recent progress in computational materials science methods and algorithms (in particular, finiteelement and finitedifference modelling) applied to various technological, mechanical, and physical problems. The presented results are important for ongoing efforts concerning the theory, modelling, and testing of advanced materials. Other results are devoted to promising devices with higher accuracy, increased longevity, and greater potential to work effectively under critical temperatures, high pressure, and in aggressive environments.